angol rezümék

2008. ÉVFOLYAM - 3-4. SZÁM

Szerkesztőség: angol rezümék

International co-operation of pedagogists? (Is pedagogy international? Pedagogy without borders?)  - As education is becoming increasingly international and ideas and pedagogical methods are spreading at international level, it would be practical to examine various tendencies and internationality in pedagogy in order to enrich the history of pedagogy.
How things flow between pedagogist and pedagogy? In search for export-import theory in pedagogy, the author approaches this subject from various aspects, and then attempts to identify a set of references to rely on while analysing the argument on New Education. To conclude, the author defines a group of proposals that may be used as a point of departure to understand specific approach to the history of ideas in pedagogy.

To what extent people need to be educated? Some attitudes almost forgotten –  For the society requires lifelong learning, people with good, flexible, and long-term education grade up. First the author discusses the society’s view on education, and then studies cultivation and education, and finally analyses the very approach to education, which leads to a so-called pure education.
To address the debate on education, the author illustrates a story by Tolstoy and analyses it to demonstrate that education is in a relative and close relation with people’s needs determined by geographical space.

Some of the ordeals in school year 1957/1958: Béla Juhász in Kecskemét. – In the school year 1957/1958 education politic leaders were busy with forcing the events of October 1956 be deemed counter revolution, oppressing any other views, opinions, commemorations, to hold disciplinary procedures, and forcing teachers, pedagogists, and schools to adopt Marxist-Leninist ideology and its postulate. For this reason, they tightened the conditions of and in teacher training schools they abolished optional religious education courses. They applied the same principles in 1959, when they started to organize institutes of higher education in teacher training and recruit managers and teaching staff. Béla Juhász, formerly the director of teacher training college in Nagykörös and in Kecskemét in the concerning year, encountered such difficulties in his work. As humanly as it was possible, he held a disciplinary procedure of second-class students who sang the Hymn on 23rd October 1957 to commemorate the anniversary of the revolution. Although the Calvinist teacher training secondary school and heading the pastor-teacher trainee class determined most of his career, he published an article entitled “On Ideological Education” (A világnézeti nevelésről)  with an attitude as expected by the Ministry in the journal Public Education (Köznevelés) in order to get a position in the teacher training college, yet he died unexpectedly. By using various printed and other sources from the National Archives, this study attempts to reconstruct the background of what happened, shedding light to the ordeals and afflictions teachers in church teacher training institutes had to endure.

Antecedents in the history of education before nationalization – The author summarizes the background (social needs, historical background, attempts) of school nationalization of 1948. Before 1948 most schools in Hungary were church-owned and secularisation in European societies influenced the Hungarian society as well. Although it took long to codify laws, the shift to an increasingly secular orientation in education gained more and more space.
The author studied relevant sources extensively to demonstrate this process and concluded that the nationalization of schools in 1948 was inevitable from social viewpoint, but the way of execution anticipated the dictatorship of a one-party state.

School gardens in the national pedagogy practices under dualism  (Austro-Hungarian Monarchy). – Gardening and plant cultivation were a symbol of education and responsible conduct for centuries. Community nurseries, usually raised next to school buildings, and cultivation of horticultural plants well-adopted to local conditions played an important role in the development of horticulture. Often it was the local teacher who was trained and willing to look after such nurseries and trained pupils how to cultivate plants in practice.
 Together with introducing compulsory school attendance the Act 38 of 1868 on public education, connected to Minister of Religion and Public Education József Eötvös, also made it compulsory to create and cultivate school gardens. According to the act the function of school gardens was to prepare students for everyday life, and to acquire knowledge through learning-by-doing. Ministerial decrees were issued, state aids, offices, associations, economic organisations joined to provide for the conditions for establishing school gardens. School garden sizes, standards of quality and equipment depended on local conditions such as geographical location and the conventional agricultural activities of the settlement. Other factors, such as the type and conditions of school, the owner’s and the social environment’s attitude, were crucial to the quality of school gardens.
 This study shows shining examples of community actions, practical workshops of how local governance and such activities enriched and shaped people complete, with particular attention to the teacher training institutes in Győr and Sopron.

An 800 year-old modern book: al-Zarnuji ’s instruction of the student. – Recently the scope of research of universal history of education has been focusing more intensively to study pedagogical history of other continents as well. This perspective, which alloys the results of comparative educational science and various trends in cultural history, may contribute to a more refined understanding of the history of education shedding more light on intercultural relations as well. The Middle Ages gave birth to several works of art in pedagogy outside the European civilization, which, however, did influence the pedagogical mindset in Europe. The “Instruction of the Student – The Method of Learning”, al-Zarnuji’s guide for students written in the early 13th century, became well-known in Europe as well, is, for example, is such a book of significant influence. This paper introduces the main chapters and ideas presented in that book originally written in Arabic, sheds light to the Islamic concept of learning of that time, and highlights how the book was received in Europe (in the Western civilization). The medieval author focused on the quintessence of attaining a knowledge, methods of learning, the particular features of teachers’ work, and selection of syllabus. His book is rich in topics and is a pleasure to read, contains plenty of poems and maxims, and generations read it over many centuries.

Statues erected in „Fasori” Lutheran Secondary Grammar School. – Based on his own experiences and memories the author recalls the „Fasori” Lutheran Secondary Grammar School (Fasori Evangélikus Gimnázium), as in 2007 statues were put up in honour of two former students: Nobel laureate János Harsányi and Kossuth prize winner János Balogh. The author remembers personal experiences and recalls the history of the school still cherished today.

Relations among minorities and denominations in public education in Fejér county. – The paper studies some 200 years of public education in Fejér county (from the early 18th century to the first decade in the 20th century) and introduces the relations among minorities and denominations typical of public education. Church authorities supervised public education, although a government decree issued in the 1840s ordered the county administration to supervise education. The education reform introduced in 1851 based on the Austrian school system had the purpose to establish modern public education, but failed to succeed. It was the Act 38 of 1868 by Eötvös that managed to found a modern civil education system, which remained for decades and regulated institutes of elementary education to meet social demands (six-grade public school, higher elementary school, teacher training school, school for economics, etc.)

How to educate people to be free? To the memory of Sándor Komlósi (1920-2007) –  This commemorative editorial paper presents the course of life of an extraordinary person in teacher training, who lectured for many decades. His scientific and academic work in family education methodology is much renowned. He was a great researcher of the history of education and his personality influenced teacher trainees significantly. He published and organized academic work both at national as well as international levels.

Sándor Sajó, a forgotten pedagogist (1868-1933) – After sketching the social and authorial work of Sajó primarily known as a poet, the author introduces him as teacher and schoolmaster. The latter ones give a more complete picture of the person whose pedagogic work was as successful as his career in literature, but in his life the first pushed pedagogy aside. The publication is a relevant assessment of Sajó’s work in pedagogy.

Selections from the history of teacher and nurse training in Transylvania – This massive book of studies of several authors introduces teacher training of several centuries in Transylvania from various aspects. In addition to training in Hungarian, and incomplete review of teacher training in other languages is also given.  

In memory of József Csige (1937-2007) – With the help of inserted documents this volume introduces the pedagogist, the schoolmaster, and the public figure.

Teacher training then and now. – A collection of conference papers presented at the international conference held in Subotica in the Republic of Serbia.

„Complimentary copy”.  This book illustrates the intimate relation of many decades between Ferenc Baráth pedagogists and his one-time student Ferenc Molnár, who became a famous writer afterwards.